Thursday, May 25, 2017

Mike's Mental Awareness Journey: Changing Your Environment!

Here is a simple question for you to ask yourself:


Are you content with your life? 


If the answer is no, then ask yourself what part of your environment needs to change.  I recently had the experience of changing environments and realized the great difference that such a change can provide.  If you want to understand why the recent blog posts in the series "Anti-Aging Skin Series" then read this short post.  Of course, to read my new entry into Mike's Mental Awareness Journey, you will have to click on the following link -- click here.



If you are looking to change your environment and need to see if the time is correct, then read what happened to me.  Remember to have an open mind and be willing to change to accommodate a new environment.  Push forward and the future will be better if the change is correct for you.  I look forward to continuing the "anti-aging skin series" very soon.  Stay tuned.


Until next time, have a great day!








Friday, May 5, 2017

Anti-Aging Skin Series Post 9: What Is The Difference Between Products?

Up to the present blog post, we have really covered quite a bit -- even if that does not seem to be the case.  The original article (blog post) was filled with a couple of solutions toward aging which have since come into question.  I say question since the information in the last 8 blog posts is comprehensive in resources and broad in questions regarding cosmetic chemistry.  You can access the feed of previous posts by clicking here.  Included in those posts are two products -- skin care products -- which were deconstructed as far as ingredients.  In the present post, I would like to "roughly" compare the two products.



At this point, you might be thinking the following: Mike, you are comparing two different manufacturers 'skincare' solutions (i.e., Moisturizing, skin tightening, hydration, etc.).  That is analogous to comparing 'apples to oranges.'  Typically, a comparison might involve two different products made by the same manufacturer.  One would be an advancement in front of the other -- or an evolution from an earlier product.  In the present blog post, I am choosing to look at the ingredient profile of two different products.  After reading this post, you should be able to look at a couple of different skin lotions and identify some common ingredients.  With that in mind, lets dive into looking at two products that were deconstructed in the following posts: 5, 6, 7, and 8.



Skin Moisturizing




The first product to be deconstructed was "Jergens Skin Firming Moisturizing Lotion" in the picture shown below:







The ingredients were deconstructed over the next four posts: (1) Post #5 (ingredient list), (2) Post #6 (Glossary of functions), and (3) Post #7 (ingredient analysis) and (4) Post #7-part#3 (toxicological introduction).  Additionally, I used this product to discuss the toxicology resources available on the internet in post #8.  After deconstructing Jergens, I thought the next product which would be relevant would be from a different manufacturer but with the same intention.  I chose a product called "Suave Skin Solutions - Lotion" which is shown in the picture below:







The post was relatively straight forward in that the ingredients were listed along with the functions of the ingredients.  I left the classifications of 'non-polar', 'polar', and emulsifier up to the reader to compare.  Once we get through a few different lotions, you should be able to look at the back of any product and have an initial idea as to the function of the ingredient.  This is a start.



If we take both products and show their ingredient list side by side, we could then get a better understanding of the similarities and differences in each.  Both products should deviate to an extent since their claims will be slightly different along with the obvious observation that their manufacturers are different.  Here is a picture of the ingredient lists side by side shown below:







When comparing ingredient lists, naturally, one immediately looks for similarities in the ingredients used in each product.  A list is shown below of the "common ingredients" from each product:







And the leftover ingredients from each define the distinct differences to each products -- not including the product claims -- which we will get to in the next post.  The remaining ingredients for the Jergens lotion are shown below:







The remaining ingredients for the Suave skin care lotion are shown below:







As you can see, there are more in the Jergens lotion -- which should not mean anything in particular.  In order to define the fine differences between the two products, we must look to the claims on the front and back as shown below:







And for Suave:







As you can see, there are a few different chemicals (ingredients) which are unique to each brand.  In order to differentiate between the two, a closer inspection into the ingredients along with the claims made by each brand needs to be performed.



In the next post, I will discuss "claims" which are written in the images (or photos) on each brand and their relevance to the overall differences between the two products.  Both products aim to provide smooth, soft, and young looking skin.  By breaking down the differences in each ingredients along with the claims, the purpose of adding each ingredients will become better known.  Alternately, by inspecting the different ingredients, we will learn more about each ingredient and how it can be used in other skin care products.


Until next time, have a great day!













Friday, April 28, 2017

Superbloom

Adapting to the drought was difficult, since I have a desire to grow edible fruits and vegetables in my (front and) backyard.  I picked up mainly succlents and cacti in 2016.  But then we got to the start of 2017, which turned out to be the sixteenth wettest stretch in Southern California since World War II.


Take for example, this container I planted several years in a row with California and New Mexico native wildflowers.  This year, a spray of Lasthenia californica (common name: goldfields) & Eschscholzia californica (common name: golden poppy) appeared.  The photo above was taken on March 31, two weeks after settling in our new location in Northridge, CA.


The container garden made the move with us, and all the plants have survived relocation.  Many of my succulents are flowering, Graptopetalum paraguayense (common name: Ghost plant) has pretty grey leaves with a pinkish cast and a delicate little flowers on an extended stem.  You can see a bit of Senecio mandraliscae (common name: Blue chalk sticks) below.


I love the chocolatey color of Echeveria compressicaulis leaves and it looks like it's putting out an impressive raceme.  I can't wait to see how the flowers look when they open. It is framed in this photo by Crassula tetragona (left), Crassula argentea (right), Sedum pachyphyllum (upper right), and Portulacaria afra (above).


I love how this photo makes it look like the perimeter of each leaf is hand-stitched.  This is Crassula pellucida subsp. marginalis 'Variegata' (nickname: Calico Kitten).  If that's not one of the sweetest things you've ever seen, I don't know what's wrong with you.  You get just a glimpse of Graptopetalum paraguayense to the left.


The beauty above started flowering before we moved.  Sedum clavatum is comprised of frosty blue-green rosettes named for 'clava' meaning "club" for the baseball shape of the sepals.  The complexity of these tiny flowers is mesmerizing. A compact inflorescence of many white star-shaped flowers appears in spring to early summer that take a pink hue with age.



I always know the end of the school year is near when I see my Echinopsis chamaecereus (common name: peanut cactus) flowering (see prev. post). You can also see a handy pollinator. I've already had good luck with harvesting seeds, so I know the winged creatures are doing good work. We've also seen many of the crane fly this season, but they are not attributed with much pollination work.


I love the more squat Rebutia krainziana and its bold orange flower.  I've been reading about the sacral chakra and the mantras associated with it: I am inspired.I am creative.I am joyful.I am in control.I am unique.I am special.I Feel. RIP to my Opuntia basilaris and Gymnocalycium mihanovichii. One got too much water and I'm not sure what happened to the other, but they're both shriveled up and dead now.


Last but not least, I will leave you with a flower of Capsicum annuum. Three out of the seven pepper plants I had last year survived the winter.  However, I won't really know which is which until they produce fruit!  The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 'Cosmic Eclipse' is still producing as well.  I don't know how they'll fare in the heat of the summer, but I'll enjoy them for as long as they live.



Monday, April 10, 2017

Where Is The Next Anti-Aging Post?

In case you have been wondering when the next post on the 'Anti-Aging Skin Series' will appear, I would like to let you know that will be soon.  I have been busy traveling over the last few weeks and have had difficulty sitting down to analyze the differences between the two products which I deconstructed.  Look for a new post in the next week or so.  Remember to review where we have come from so far.



You will recall that the first product was Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizing Lotion.  Whereas the second product was the Suave Skin Solutions.  Since both have been deconstructed as far as ingredients are concerned, in the next post I will look at the fine differences between the ingredients and claims on each product.  I just wanted to give you an update and let you know that I have not forgotten about the series and look forward to continuing the series.



Until next time, have a great day!












Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Anti-Aging Skin Series Post 8: Suave Skin Solutions

Anti-Aging skin care solutions are still controversial to say the least.  In the last two posts, I covered a product - Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizing Lotion.  You got to see the function of each ingredient from the list on the rear of the bottle of lotion.  An intermediate post was to clarify the functions of each ingredient with a short glossary of terms.  The second part of the analysis was concerned with the toxicity of the ingredients in the bottle.  From that analysis, the take away message was to inspect the ingredients on the back of each bottle.  Chances are that the concentration of a 'unwanted' ingredient (toxic) is less than the lethal level (LD50).  Although, in that post, I illustrated different avenues by which to find out toxicity information on a given ingredient.



The posts listed above are part of the "Anti-Aging Skin Series" which originated out of a lengthy post on the state of anti-aging in science -- an introductory post.  From this post, a further deconstruction was needed which resulted in a series which will evaluate different products with claims of "Anti-Aging" capabilities.  I will dig into the science of the claims if possible or at least shed light.  Regardless, the reader (you) will learn a large amount of information about the various ingredients listed on the back side of the product containers.  With that in mind, time to move onto the next product.



Now that the first product was deconstructed, I thought that the time has come to move onto another product.  The next product is also a lotion -- Suave Skin Solutions -- with claims of "Revitalizing with vitamin E".  The picture of the front of the bottle is shown below:







According to the print on the front face of the bottle, the following claims are made: "Dermatologist tested", "Age defying moisture", ....   Here is a photo of the back of the bottle:







and if the ingredient list is zoomed in on, the following picture is shown of the ingredient list:










Ingredients:




The following list is of the ingredients on the back of the bottle of Suave Skin Solutions Lotion.  Data shown below is taken from the website EWG.



1) Cetyl Alcohol:



About CETYL ALCOHOL: Cetyl alcohol is a long chain organic alcohol; according to the PETA's Caring Consumer guide, this ingredient can be of either animal or plant origin.
This ingredient may be derived from animals. From PETA's Caring Consumer: Wax found in spermaceti from sperm whales or dolphins. Alternatives: Vegetable cetyl alcohol (e.g., coconut), synthetic spermaceti.
Function(s): Emulsion Stabilizer; Fragrance Ingredient; Opacifying Agent; Surfactant - Emulsifying Agent;Surfactant - Foam Booster; Viscosity Increasing Agent - Aqueous; Viscosity Increasing Agent -Nonaqueous; EMOLLIENT; EMULSION STABILISING; FOAM BOOSTING; MASKING; VISCOSITY CONTROLLING
Synonym(s): 1-HEXADECANOL; CETANOL; HEXADECAN-1-OL; N-HEXADECYL ALCOHOL; PALMITYL ALCOHOL; ADOL; ADOL 52; ADOL 520; ADOL 54; ALCOHOL C-16; ATALCO C


2) Carbomer:



About CARBOMER: Carbomer is a large polymeric chemical composed of acrylic acid monomers.
Function(s): Emulsion Stabilizer; Viscosity Increasing Agent - Aqueous; EMULSION STABILISING; GEL FORMING; VISCOSITY CONTROLLING
Synonym(s): CARBOMER 934; CARBOMER 934 P; CARBOMER 941; CARBOPOL 910; CARBOXYVINYLPOLYMER; CARBOMER 934; CARBOPOL 934; CARBOPOL 941


3) Dimethicone:



About DIMETHICONE: Dimethicone (also called polymethylsiloxane) is a silicon-based polymer used as a lubricant and conditioning agent.
Function(s): Antifoaming Agent; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Occlusive; Skin Protectant; EMOLLIENT; SKIN CONDITIONING; SKIN PROTECTING
Synonym(s): DIMETHICONE COPOLYOL; DIMETHYL SILICONE; HIGHLY POLYMERIZED METHYL POLYSILOXANE; METHYL POLYSILOXANE; SILICONE L-45; DC 1664; DIMETHICONE 350; DIMETICONE; DOW CORNING 1664; MIRASIL DM 20; VISCASIL 5M



4) DMDM Hydantoin:



About DMDM HYDANTOIN (FORMALDEHYDE RELEASER): DMDM hydantoin is an antimicrobial formaldehyde releaser preservative. People exposed to such formaldehyde-releasing ingredients may develop a formaldehyde allergy or an allergy to the ingredient itself and its decomposition products. In the U.S., approximately 20% of cosmetics and personal care products contain a formaldehyde-releaser and the frequency of contact allergy to these ingredients is much higher among Americans compared to studies in Europe. 
Function(s): Preservative
Synonym(s): DMDM HYDANTOIN, 1,3-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) -5,5-DIMETHYL- 2,4-IMIDAZOLIDINEDIONE; 1,3-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) -5,5-DIMETHYLIMIDAZOLIDINE-2,4-DIONE; 1,3-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) -5,5-DIMETHYLIMIDAZOLIDINE-2,4-DIONE (+) ; 1,3-DIHYDROXYMETHYL-5,5 DIMETHYLHYDANTOIN; 1,3-DIMETHYLOL-5,5-DIMETHYL HYDANTOIN; 2,4-IMIDAZOLIDINEDIONE, 1,3-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) -5,5-DIMETHYL-; 2,4IMIDAZOLIDINEDIONE, 1,3BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) 5,5DIMETHYL; 1,3-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) -5,5-DIMETHYLHYDANTOIN; 2,4-IMIDAZOLIDINEDIONE, 1,3-BIS (HYDROXYMETHYL) -5,5-DIMETHYL- (9CI) ; DANTOIN DMDMH 55; DIMETHYLOL-5,5-DIMETHYLHYDANTOIN



5) Fragrance:



About FRAGRANCE: The word "fragrance" or "parfum" on the product label represents an undisclosed mixture of various scent chemicals and ingredients used as fragrance dispersants such as diethyl phthalate. Fragrance mixes have been associated with allergies, dermatitis, respiratory distress and potential effects on the reproductive system.
Function(s): DEODORANT; MASKING; PERFUMING
Synonym(s): AROMA; PARFUM



6) Glycerin:



About GLYCERIN: Glycerin (also called glycerol) is a naturally occurring alcohol compound and a component of many lipids. Glycerin may be of animal or vegetable origin. This ingredient is listed in the PETA's Caring Consumer guide as a byproduct of soap manufacture which typically uses animal fat.
This ingredient may be derived from animals. From PETA's Caring Consumer: A byproduct of soap manufacture (normally uses animal fat). In cosmetics, foods, mouthwashes, chewing gum, toothpastes, soaps, ointments, medicines, lubricants, transmission and brake fluid, and plastics. Derivatives: Glycerides, Glyceryls, Glycreth-26, Polyglycerol. Alternatives: vegetable glycerin—a byproduct of vegetable oil soap. Derivatives of seaweed, petroleum.
Function(s): Denaturant; Fragrance Ingredient; Hair Conditioning Agent; Humectant; Oral Care Agent;Oral Health Care Drug; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Humectant; Skin Protectant; Viscosity Decreasing Agent; PERFUMING; SOLVENT
Synonym(s): 1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL; 1,2,3-TRIHYDROXYPROPANE; 1,2,3PROPANETRIOL; CONCENTRATED GLYCERIN; GLYCERINE; GLYCEROL; GLYCYL ALCOHOL; 1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL; 1,2,3-TRIHYDROXYPROPANE; 90 TECHNICAL GLYCERINE; CITIFLUOR AF 2



7) Glyceryl Stearate:



About GLYCERYL STEARATE SE: Glyceryl Stearate SE (self-emulsifying) is a lipid used as surfactant and emulsifying agent.
Function(s): Surfactant - Emulsifying Agent
Synonym(s): OCTADECANOIC ACID, ESTER WITH 1,2,3PROPANETRIOL; SELF-EMULSIFYING GLYCERYL MONOSTEARATE; STEARINE



8) Glycol Stearate:



About GLYCOL STEARATE: Glycol Stearate is composed ethylene glycol and stearic acid, a naturally occurring fatty acid.
Function(s): Emulsion Stabilizer; Opacifying Agent; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Emollient; EMULSIFYING; SURFACTANT
Synonym(s): 2-HYDROXYETHYL ESTER OCTADECANOIC ACID; 2-HYDROXYETHYL ESTER STEARIC ACID; 2-HYDROXYETHYL OCTADECANOATE; 2-HYDROXYETHYL STEARATE; ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOSTEARATE; GLYCOL MONOSTEARATE; OCTADECANOIC ACID, 2-HYDROXYETHYL ESTER; OCTADECANOIC ACID, 2HYDROXYETHYL ESTER; STEARIC ACID, 2-HYDROXYETHYL ESTER; CLINDROL SEG; EMEREST 2350



9) Helianthus Annuus (sunflower) seed oil:



About HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (SUNFLOWER) OIL: Sunflower oil is extracted from the seeds of the sunflower, Helianthus annuus.
Function(s): Skin-Conditioning Agent - Miscellaneous; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Occlusive; EMOLLIENT
Synonym(s): HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (SUNFLOWER) SEED OIL, SUNFLOWER OIL; HELIANTHUS ANNUUS OIL; OILS, SUNFLOWER SEED; SOLVENT SUNFLOWER OIL; SUNFLOWER OIL; SUNFLOWER OIL; SUNFLOWER SEED OIL; SUNFLOWER SEED OILS


10) Iodopropynyl Butylcarbamate:



About IODOPROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE: Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate is used as a preservative in cosmetic formulations; it is acutely toxic by inhalation and should not be used in products that can be aerosolized or inhaled.
Function(s): PRESERVATIVE
Synonym(s): 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL BUTYLCARBAMATE; BUTYL-3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL ESTER CARBAMIC ACID; BUTYL-3-IODO-2-PROPYNYLCARBAMATE; BUTYLCARBAMIC ACID, 3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL ESTER; CARBAMIC ACID, BUTYL, 3IODO2PROPYNYL ESTER; CARBAMIC ACID, BUTYL-3-IODO-2-PROPYNYL ESTER; IDOPROPYNL BUTYLCARBAMATE; IODOPROPYL BUTYLCARBAMATE; IODOPROPYNL BUTYLCARBAMATE; IPBC



11) Magnesium Aluminum Silicate:



About MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM SILICATE: Magnesium Aluminum Silicate is a complex silicate refined from naturally occurring minerals.
Function(s): Absorbent; Anticaking Agent; Opacifying Agent; Slip Modifier; Viscosity Increasing Agent -Aqueous; VISCOSITY CONTROLLING
Synonym(s): ALUMINIUM MAGNESIUM SILICATE (2:1:2) ; ALUMINUM MAGNESIUM SALT SILICIC ACID; ALUMINUM MAGNESIUM SILICATE; ALUMINUM MAGNESIUM SILICON OXIDE; SILICIC ACID, ALUMINUM MAGNESIUM SALT; VEEGUM; ALUMINOSILICIC ACID, MAGNESIUM SALT; ALUMINUM MAGNESIUM SILICATE


12) Methylparaben:



About METHYLPARABEN: Methylparaben is in the paraben family of preservatives used by the food, pharmaceutical, and personal care product industries. Parabens mimic estrogen and can act as potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptors.
Possible impurity in: CITRUS GRANDIS (GRAPEFRUIT) SEED EXTRACT (895 products), CITRUS PARADISI (GRAPEFRUIT) SEED EXTRACT (4 products), see all ingredients | products
Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; Preservative
Synonym(s): 4-HYDROXY- METHYL ESTER BENZOIC ACID; 4-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID, METHYL ESTER; 4-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID, METHYL ESTER, POTASSIUM SALT; BENZOIC ACID, 4-HYDROXY-, METHYL ESTER; BENZOIC ACID, 4-HYDROXY-, METHYL ESTER, POTASSIUM SALT; BENZOIC ACID, 4-HYDROXY-, METHYL ESTER, SODIUM SALT; BENZOIC ACID, 4HYDROXY, METHYL ESTER; BENZOIC ACID, 4HYDROXY, METHYL ESTER, SODIUM SALT; METHYL 4-HYDROXYBENZOATE; METHYL ESTER 4-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID; METHYL ESTER BENZOIC ACID, 4-HYDROXY-



13) Mineral Oil:



Other MODERATE concerns: Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
About MINERAL OIL: Mineral Oil is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum.
Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; Hair Conditioning Agent; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Emollient;Skin-Conditioning Agent - Occlusive; Skin Protectant; Solvent; ANTISTATIC; PERFUMING; SKIN PROTECTING
Synonym(s): DEOBASE; HEAVY MINERAL OIL; LIGHT MINERAL OIL; LIQUID PARAFFIN; LIQUID PETROLATUM; PARAFFIN OIL; PARAFFIN OILS; PARAFFINUM LIQUIDUM; PETROLEUM WHITE MINERAL OIL; PROLATUM OIL; WHITE MINERAL OIL, PETROLEUM



14) Panthenol:



About PANTHENOL: Panthenol is a form of vitamin B5, used as a moisturizer and lubricating compound. This ingredient is listed in the PETA's Caring Consumer guide as a substance that can be of either animal or plant origin.
This ingredient may be derived from animals. From PETA's Caring Consumer: Can come from animal or plant sources or synthetics. In shampoos, supplements, emollients, etc. In foods. Derivative: Panthenyl. Alternatives: synthetics, plants.
Function(s): Hair Conditioning Agent; ANTISTATIC; SKIN CONDITIONING
Synonym(s): D-PANTOTHENYL ALCOHOL; DEXPANTHENOL; DL-PANTOTHENYL ALCOHOL; PANTHENOL , DL-FORM; PANTOTHENOL; PANTOTHENYL ALCOHOL; PROVITAMIN B5; (+-) -PANTOTHENYL ALCOHOL; ALCOOL DL-PANTOTENILICO (ITALIAN) ; DL-PANTOTHENYL ALCOHOL; PANTENOL



15) Petrolatum:



About PETROLATUM: Petrolatum is a semisolid mixture of hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum.
Function(s): Hair Conditioning Agent; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Occlusive; Skin Protectant; EMOLLIENT; MOISTURISING; UV ABSORBER
Synonym(s): MINERAL GREASE (PETROLATUM) ; MINERAL JELLY; PETROLATUM AMBER; PETROLATUM WHITE; PETROLEUM JELLY; YELLOW PETROLATUM



16) Retinyl Palmitate:



About RETINYL PALMITATE (VITAMIN A PALMITATE): Retinyl palmitate is an ingredient composed of palmitic acid and retinol (Vitamin A). Data from an FDA study indicate that retinyl palmitate, when applied to the skin in the presence of sunlight, may speed the development of skin tumors and lesions. FDA, Norwegian and German health agencies have raised a concern that daily skin application of vitamin A creams may contribute to excessive vitamin A intake for pregnant women and other populations.
Function(s): Skin-Conditioning Agent - Miscellaneous; SKIN CONDITIONING
Synonym(s): RETINYL PALMITATE, AXEROPHTHOL PALMITATE; HEXADECANOATE RETINOL; RETINOL PALMITATE; RETINOL, HEXADECANOATE; VITAMIN A PALMITATE; AQUASOL A; AROVIT; OPTOVIT-A; RETINOL PALMITATE; VITAMIN A PALMITATE



17) Stearamide AMP:



Function(s): Surfactant - Foam Booster; Viscosity Increasing Agent - Aqueous; FOAM BOOSTING; VISCOSITY CONTROLLING
Synonym(s): N- (2-HYDROXY-1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL) - OCTADECANAMIDE; N- (2-HYDROXY-1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL) OCTADECANAMIDE; OCTADECANAMIDE, N- (2-HYDROXY-1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL) -



18) Stearic Acid:



About STEARIC ACID: Stearic acid is a naturally occurring fatty acid. It is listed in the PETA's Caring Consumer guide as a substance of animal origin, since stearic acid is primarily derived from rendered fat of farm and domestic animals.
This ingredient may be derived from animals. From PETA's Caring Consumer: Fat from cows and sheep and from dogs and cats euthanized in animal shelters, etc. Most often refers to a fatty substance taken from the stomachs of pigs. Can be harsh, irritating. Used in cosmetics, ... read more
Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; Surfactant - Cleansing Agent; Surfactant - Emulsifying AgentSurfactant-Cleansing Agent is included as a function for the soap form of Stearic Acid.; EMULSION STABILISING; MASKING; REFATTING
Synonym(s): N-OCTADECANOIC ACID; OCTADECANOIC ACID; 1-HEPTADECANECARBOXYLIC ACID; CENTURY 1240; CETYLACETIC ACID; DAR-CHEM 14; EMERSOL 120; EMERSOL 132; EMERSOL 150; FORMULA 300; GLYCON DP



19) Tetrasodium EDTA:



About TETRASODIUM EDTA: EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) is a chelating agent, used to sequester and decrease the reactivity of metal ions that may be present in a product.
Function(s): Chelating Agent
Synonym(s): EDETATE SODIUM; ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID TETRASODIUM SALT; GLYCINE, N,N 1,2ETHANEDIYLBIS [N (CARBOXYMETHYL) , TETRASODIUM SALT; GLYCINE, N,N'-1,2-ETHANEDIYLBIS [N- (CARBOXYMETHYL) -, TETRASODIUM SALT; N,N'-1,2-ETHANEDIYL BIS [N- (CARBOXYMETHYL) GLYCINE, TETRASODIUM SALT; N,N'-1,2-ETHANEDIYLBIS [N- (CARBOXYMETHYL) - TETRASODIUM SALT GLYCINE; N,N'-1,2-ETHANEDIYLBIS [N- (CARBOXYMETHYL) GLYCINE] , TETRASODIUM SALT; SODIUM EDETATE; TETRASODIUM EDE TATE TETRAHYDRATE; TETRASODIUM EDETATE; TETRASODIUM EDETATE DIHYDRATE



20) Titanium Dioxide:



About TITANIUM DIOXIDE: Titanium dioxide is an inorganic compound used in a range of body care products such as sunscreens and makeup. It appears to have low skin penetration but inhalation is a concern.
Function(s): Colorant; Opacifying Agent; Sunscreen Agent; Ultraviolet Light Absorber
Synonym(s): 1385RN 59; 1700 WHITE; 234DA; 500HD; 63B1 WHITE; A 200 (PIGMENT) ; A 330 (PIGMENT) ; A-FIL; A-FIL CREAM; A-FN 3; AEROLYST 7710



21) Tocopheryl Acetate:



About TOCOPHERYL ACETATE: Tocopheryl acetate is a chemical compound that consists of acetic acid and tocopherol (vitamin E)
Function(s): Antioxidant; Skin-Conditioning Agent - Miscellaneous; SKIN CONDITIONING
Synonym(s): 3,4-DIHYDRO-2,5,7,8-TETRAMETHYL-2- (4,8,12-TRIMETHYLTRIDECYL) -2H-BENZOPYRAN-6-YL ACETATE; 3,4-DIHYDRO-2,5,7,8-TETRAMETHYL-2- (4,8,12-TRIMETHYLTRIDECYL-2H-BENZOPYRAN-6-OL, ACETATE; ACETATE 3,4-DIHYDRO-2,5,7,8-TETRAMETHYL-2- (4,8,12-TRIMETHYLTRIDECYL-2H-BENZOPYRAN-6-OL; ALPHA-TOCOPHERYL ACETATE; D-A-TOCOPHERYL ACETATE; D-ALPHA-TOCOPHERYL ACETATE; DL-A -TOCOPHERYL ACETATE; DL-ALPHA TOCOPHERYL ACETATE; DL-ALPHA-TOCOPHERYL ACETATE; TOCOPHEROL ACETATE; TOCOPHERYL ACETATE, DL-ALPHA



22) Triethanolamine:



About TRIETHANOLAMINE: Triethanolamine is a strongly alkaline substance used as surfactant and pH adjusting chemical.
Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; pH Adjuster; Surfactant - Emulsifying Agent; BUFFERING; MASKING
Synonym(s): 2,2',2"-NITRILOTRIS [ETHANOL] ; 2,2',2''-NITRILOTRIETHANOL; ETHANOL, 2,2 ,2 NITRILOTRIS; ETHANOL, 2,2',2"-NITRILOTRIS-; TEA; TROLAMINE; 2,2',2''-NITRILOTRIETHANOL; ALKANOLAMINE 244; DALTOGEN; NITRILO-2,2',2''-TRIETHANOL; STEROLAMIDE



23) Water:



Function(s): SOLVENT
Synonym(s): AQUA; DEIONIZED WATER; DISTILLED WATER; ONSEN-SUI; PURIFIED WATER; DIHYDROGEN OXIDE; DISTILLED WATER



These are the ingredients listed on the backside of the bottle of Suave Lotion (image shown above).  The toxicities were not listed in this post.  As I mentioned in the last post, the toxicities can be found on the EWG - Environmental Working Group website that I hyperlinked for each ingredient.  In the next post, I will discuss the anti-aging claims made in this lotion which have some credibility from science.



What is interesting is that the same ingredient that is claimed to have anti-aging properties in this product also has the greatest toxicity associated with the product.



Can you guess or determine which ingredient I am speaking of?



Conclusion...




In the paragraphs above, I listed the ingredients in the second product -- Suave Lotion - that is deconstructed as part of our 'anti-aging skin series'.  Additionally, the names of synonymous ingredient names were given with each chemical.  This is helpful when product manufacturers would like to distinguish their product aside from other popular lotions (moisturizers) on the market.



In the next post, I will discuss the differences between Suave Lotion and Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizing Lotion.  Additionally, I will answer the question regarding which ingredient is the anti-aging chemical and also holds the award for being the most 'toxic' ingredient in the formulation.



Until next time, have a great day.












Saturday, February 25, 2017

Anti-Aging Skin Series Post 7: Part 3 -- Toxicity Analysis Of Jergen's Skin Lotion

Have I lost you yet?  Are you bored with the series "Anti-Aging Skin Series"?  Would you like a greater depth of information on cosmetic products? Please feel free to leave comments in the section below.  I understand that the first product deconstruction has taken a long time.  But the essential features of a product are the chemicals incorporated within them.  And how those chemicals behave on your skin is critical to your trust in a given product.  Therefore, understanding the basics is important when purchasing future cosmetic products.



Continuing on with the "Anti-Aging Skin Series" -- the time has come to comment on the toxicity of the ingredients in the first product I analyzed -- Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizer.  As you will recall, in the first part of the analysis of the skin firming lotion (Anti-Aging Skin Series Post 5), I introduced you to the sources (EWG, Paula's Choice, and David Suzuki are three examples) of chemical information on where to find the ingredients listed on the back of cosmetic products.   This post gave you an idea of the function of the ingredient.  In an intermediate post, I decided to compile a short list of a glossary of functions for you to refer to for greater information on each function.  Understanding the function of each ingredient gives you a better idea of why the ingredient was needed in the product in the first place.



The next logical post (Part 2) was an exploration of the ingredients in terms of function and also a categorization of the ingredients into the nature of their chemical structure.  Those chemicals that possess a greater amount of 'non-polar' character where categorized as 'non-polar'.  Whereas, on the other side of the spectrum are molecules which have a higher degree of charge difference in their structure and are therefore classified as 'polar'.  In order to bring these two different types of structure into a homogeneous mixture (a cosmetic product that does not separate), an 'emulsifier' is used.  As a result of the analysis, in the future products analyzed in this series, you will have a better understanding of the need to incorporate each into a given cosmetic product.  The next product I chose to breakdown and analyze is from a claimed "green" company with no harsh chemicals.  But before I get to that product, I wanted to speak a little on the toxicity of chemicals found in cosmetic products.  Below are a few thoughts and images to drive home the point -- toxicity lies on a spectrum (a range).



What Is Toxicity?




If the valuable resource "Wikipedia" were consulted for an understanding of the meaning 'Toxicity,' the following introduction would be seen below:



Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism.[1] Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ such as the liver (hepatotoxicity). By extension, the word may be metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage.
A central concept of toxicology is that the effects of a toxin are dose-dependent; even water can lead to water intoxication when taken in too high a dose, whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect. Toxicity is species-specific, making cross-species analysis problematic. Newer paradigms and metrics are evolving to bypass animal testing, while maintaining the concept of toxicity endpoints.[2]



 The toxicity of a given substance is dependent on the damage done to a given organism or plant.  Damage can be broken down into substructures of organisms or plants -- specific parts (organs, metabolic pathways, etc.).   That is where the definition gets difficult.  Further, toxicity depends on dose -- i.e., how much of the substance was administered?  Routes of exposure are just as critical as the amount of substance given.  These are just a couple of the main considerations to think about when assessing the toxicity associated with a given chemical.



Next, the type of toxic entity is important to consider in a given assessment.  Below are the four types of toxic entities taken from "Wikipedia":



  • Chemical toxicants include inorganic substances such as, lead, mercury, hydrofluoric acid, and chlorine gas, and organic compounds such as methyl alcohol, most medications, and poisons from living things. While some weakly radioactive substances, such as uranium, are also chemical toxicants, more strongly radioactive materials like radium are not, their harmful effects (radiation poisoning) being caused by the ionizing radiation produced by the substance rather than chemical interactions with the substance itself. 
  • Disease-causing microorganisms and parasites are toxic in a broad sense, but are generally called pathogens rather than toxicants. The biological toxicity of pathogens can be difficult to measure because the "threshold dose" may be a single organism. Theoretically one virus, bacterium or worm can reproduce to cause a serious infection. However, in a host with an intact immune system the inherent toxicity of the organism is balanced by the host's ability to fight back; the effective toxicity is then a combination of both parts of the relationship. In some cases, e.g. cholera, the disease is chiefly caused by a nonliving substance secreted by the organism, rather than the organism itself. Such nonliving biological toxicants are generally called toxins if produced by a microorganism, plant, or fungus, and venoms if produced by an animal. 
  • Physical toxicants are substances that, due to their physical nature, interfere with biological processes. Examples include coal dust, asbestos fibers or finely divided silicon dioxide, all of which can ultimately be fatal if inhaled. Corrosive chemicals possess physical toxicity because they destroy tissues, but they're not directly poisonous unless they interfere directly with biological activity. Water can act as a physical toxicant if taken in extremely high doses because the concentration of vital ions decreases dramatically if there's too much water in the body. Asphyxiant gases can be considered physical toxicants because they act by displacing oxygen in the environment but they are inert, not chemically toxic gases. 
  • As already mentioned, radiation can have a toxic effect on organisms.[3]



I understand that the two excerpts above are lengthy and might be redundant.  Although, when the toxicity of an ingredient is taken into account, the mechanism by which the chemical or agent takes in damaging organs is crucial toward understanding the overall toxicity.  In the Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizing Lotion, there were around 29 ingredients.  To break down the toxicity of each compound would be cumbersome.  The four elements of 'Risk-Assessment' are: Hazard Identification, Dose-Response Assessment, Exposure Assessment, and Risk Characterization.



The terms listed at the end of the last paragraph might sound dangerous.  The manufacturers are responsible for listing the information regarding the four elements listed above.  You might be wondering the following:



Where do I find toxicity information?



If you are a chemist, the first place you might look is at the "Materials Safety Data Sheet".  Right about now, you are probably wondering the following question:



How do I find the 'msds' sheet for a given chemical?



The process is easy.  Type into a search engine like "Google" the following:  Propyl Paraben msds .  The result is shown below for the 'msds' for Propyl Paraben:






If you click on the 3rd option that appears to be a 'pdf' then the entire (5 page) 'Material Safety Data Sheet' will be downloaded.  You will notice that there are 16 sections boxed out on the form as follows:



1) Chemical Product and Company Identification

2) Composition and Information on Ingredients

3) Hazards Identification

4) First Aid Measures

5) Fire and Explosion Data

6) Accidental Release Measures

7) Handling and Storage

8) Exposure Controls/Personal Protection

9) Physical and Chemical Properties

10) Stability and Reactivity Data

11) Toxicological Information

12) Ecological Information

13) Disposal Considerations

14) Transport Information

15) Other Regulatory Information

16) Other Information


Is that list comprehensive enough for you?


The purpose of the 'msds' information is to give the chemist or any other person working with a chemical the 'heads up' in terms of the properties and hazards associated with the chemical.  In this case, the chemical is Propyl Paraben -- which is a preservative in Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizing Lotion.



In terms of toxicity of a given chemical, a toxicologist will look the four elements listed above.  From the 'msds' information, the most important factor will be the "LD50" value.  According to 'Wikipedia' the 'LD50' value is defined as:



In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen. The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. LD50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity. A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity.



With units of dose/body mass:



 The LD50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms (suitable for botulinum), micrograms, or grams (suitable for paracetamol) per kilogram. Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed (although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass).



The above definition is worded in a complicated fashion.  But what if you are interested in the general data surrounding the ingredient.  Is the ingredient toxic in cosmetic products?  If you choose to look at the 'msds' for the ingredient Propyl Paraben, you will find the following sections useful as shown below taken as screenshots of the downloaded 'pdf':







The first section shown above is the general information regarding the chemical Propyl Paraben.  Note that the information contained on the following parts of the 'msds' apply to the chemical's use in a variety of manufacturing situations.   Which is why the 'msds' sheet is not printed on the back or included with a cosmetic product.  The next section is useful (probably the most useful) to the consumer of a cosmetic product -- "Composition and Information on Ingredients":






Upon first inspection of the ingredient information, you are probably wondering why this ingredient would ever be used in a cosmetic or food product.  The above information exemplifies why the parameter of "concentration" is so important.  In a typical cosmetic formulation, Propyl Paraben is probably around 5% of the total concentration.  Therefore, the toxicity information of the LD50 is negligible.  Below, I will show a calculation to prove such.  The information above and below might be useful though to those with sensitive skin toward the class of chemicals known as "parabens".  Below is the first aid measures as stated on the 'msds':






Again, the above information might be useful for consumers who develop a rash or adverse reaction toward this particular ingredient.  The information contain in the section below pertains toward working with the chemical at a manufacturing level.  Although, if you find an adverse reaction toward a product, you should report that product to the FDA.






The section above and below are rather redundant to the consumer, but necessary to the chemist working with the ingredient at the manufacturing scale level.







In the section above, the toxicological data was stated as being tested on a 'mouse model'.  The stated LD50 was 7500 mg/kg of bodyweight.  Which means that at a concentration of 7.5 grams per kilogram of bodyweight, the chemical would be toxic to an animal or person as shown below:






How would that lethal dose translate to a person who weighs 150 pounds?



How would a person figure that out given the toxicological data above?



To start with, type into a search engine the following: how many kilograms in a pound?  The answer below is given:








Next, the conversion of units from 'pound' to 'kilogram' is necessary as shown below:







With the proper units expressed uniformly across all values, the determination of the lethal dose is straightforward as shown below:






The result above indicates that in order for the chemical - Propyl Paraben to be lethal in the product - Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizing lotion, the amount of Propyl Paraben contained in the bottle would have to be 510 grams. How many pounds is that?  See below:







The result indicates that the bottle of lotion would have to contain 1.12 pounds of Propyl Paraben to be lethal to a human being.  Obviously the bottle of lotion only has a total weight of 16.8 fluid ounces which is equal to 1.06 pounds.  Meaning the entire bottle would have to be Propyl Paraben to be lethal to your body!!!!!



That was a useful exercise for the novice chemist.



What about the average consumer who does not want to mine through the confusing paperwork above -- the 'Materials Safety Data Sheet'?  



Where else can a consumer find the equivalent information shown above stated more clearly to the consumer?



In the next section, a website will be given where you the consumer can easily find the equivalent information above stated in a more simple manner.




Toxic Ingredients




As a basic starting point, the site 'EWG' is great.  The 'SkinDeep' database has some information.  Take for example the ingredient 'Dimethicone'.  Enter that ingredient into the database and look at the profile listed below:







Notice on the upper left hand corner, there is a 'score' which states the overall danger associated with the product (in this case Dimethicone).  Inspecting the 'right hand column' there are the following categories:

1) Overall Hazard

2) Cancer

3) Development & Reproductive Toxicity

4) Allergies & Immunotoxicity

5) Use Restrictions


Note: Each of the above categories is measured along a scale with a range of "low" to "moderate" to "high".



In the example of 'dimethicone' which is contained in the Jergen's lotion, the "overall hazard" is between "low" and "moderate".  Additionally, the category "Use Restrictions" is also between "low" and "moderate".  Whereas, the next chemical shown below is "cyclopentasiloxane" with a similar overall score of "3" but different values on the right hand side:







According to the sheet above, the chemical "cyclopentasiloxane" has a small amount of "cancer" risk.  The scale is ambiguous and the 'msds' data would need to be consulted or the website 'EWG' for more information.  Additionally, a consumer could choose to weigh the chemical above in comparison to another chemical like cetearyl alcohol as shown below:







The only conclusion that can be drawn from the information is that cetearyl alcohol is less dangerous than "cyclopentasiloxane".  Below I show a three more chemicals with different information for you to see: Acrylonitrile, Methyl Paraben, and Propyl Paraben.  See if you can spot major differences between the three.







Methyl Paraben is shown below:






Propyl Paraben is shown below:







Notice how the chemicals differ in the categories on the right hand side along with the overall chemical score.  In the images below, I take you through the columns on the left hand side (using Propyl Paraben as an example).  The following sections filled with information are:

1) Products 

2) Endocrine Disruption 

3) Allergies/immunotoxicity 

4) Use Restrictions

5) Developmental/Reproductive Toxicity 

6) Ecotoxicity

7) Persistence/Bioaccumulation

8) Multiple, additive exposure sources

9) Data Gaps

10) Organ System Toxicity 

11) Data Sources



Upon clicking on the left hand column any of the categories listed above, a detailed page appears.  For instance, click on the category for "products" and a list of over 3600 products will appear with the chemical Propyl Paraben in them as shown below:






For "Endocrine Disruption" information, click and see the following below:






Choosing the option "Allergies/Immunotoxicity" will display the following information:








Choosing the option "Use Restrictions" will display the following information:








Choosing the option "Developmental/Reproductive Toxicity" will display the following information:








Choosing the option "Ecotoxicology" will display the following information:








Choosing the option "Persistence and Bioaccumulation" will display the following information:








Choosing the option "Multiple, Additive Exposure Sources" will display the following information:








Choosing the option "Data Gaps" will display the following information:








Choosing the option "Organ System Toxicity" will display the following information:








As you can see from the above information, the amount of toxicity data available on the internet regarding a chemical ingredient is quite extensive and might be overwhelming at first sight.  Keep in mind though that there are other parameters that need to be considered when viewing any of the sections listed above.



For instance, the chemical Propyl Paraben is considered toxic and should not be inhaled according to the "Materials Safety Data Sheet" -- then why would that ingredient be in a cosmetic product.  Well, as part of a skin lotion formulation, the concentration (at 5% or less) is very low toxicity to begin with.  Additionally, the matrix (formulation) in which the ingredient is in will not allow the chemical to diffuse into your skin very easily or be breathed nonetheless.



Conclusion...




The ingredients listed on the first part of the series for Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizing Lotion all carry a degree of toxicity associated with them.  In the examples shown above, some of the chemicals like cetearyl alcohol have a lower "overall hazard" associated with them compared to the "overall hazard" associated with Propyl Paraben.



Although, if you find yourself concerned, the information is available to greater investigate the chemical properties and toxicities associated with them as I have shown above.  I provided a few examples from the ingredient list on the backside of Jergen's Skin Firming Moisturizing Lotion.  Now, you can search the "EWG" database for the toxicity of the remaining ingredients.  Additionally, I provided only one example of a site with the toxicity data displayed.  Upon further inspection, many more sources will be revealed.



In the next post on the "Anti-Aging Skin Series", we will explore a different product with claims of 'anti-aging' properties.  After exploring a few products with claims surrounding 'anti-aging' you will begin to see 'common ingredients' which must be present to support claims.



Until next time, have a great day!



































Friday, February 10, 2017

Greatest Hits -- Molecules!

This post is for all the science teachers out there seeking a practical chemistry lesson.  We're constantly encouraging our students to apply critical thinking to real world problems.  We also want them to exercise public speaking skills.  Around this time of year students get bored no matter how exciting the lesson and it's good to get them actively involved in a dynamic lesson to keep them engaged in learning.







Periodically I will write about a molecule or a related group of molecules.  I always try to include the chemical name and structure of the molecule.  I printed out the text of each of the posts below and gave students about 20 minutes to read and analyze the content.  I asked them to answer the following 3 questions in an oral presentation using the board:



Tell us about your molecule:

What does it do?

How does it work?

Draw its structure!



I had the students complete this exercise in pairs.  It was one of the most engaging lessons of the entire semester.  After each group made their presentation to the class, we spent the remaining 15 minutes covering the Drug Free Campus Policy information for students.  We talked about how some of the molecular stories were about depressants, stimulants, and club drugs.  We talked about how just because a drug is available by prescription, doesn't mean it isn't dangerous.



If you're interested in receiving the text only of the following blog posts (without all the sidebar and URL information) send me an email and I can send you a .pdf.  It's so important to engage students in the fun and exciting (and practical) applications of chemistry to give them some incentive to learn all the basics we are trying to teach them.



Even though my class was populated with college freshmen (who have no Organic Chemistry experience) we were able to recognize common substructures in molecules with a common effect in vivo. The students can identify 5- or 6-membered rings, as well as noting heterocyclic rings and side-chain lengths, without formal training in functional groups.



In the future, a blog post will appear about the class of benzodiazapines including Lorazepam (Ativan) and Alprazolam (Xanax), which share a common substructure.  These molecules have a high potential for abuse.  Stay tuned!







We were able to talk about Kary Mullis in the following class period and how he enjoyed making analogues of LSD until that practice became illegal.  Maybe I can also write about ayahuasca.



1) DMT: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/09/12/the-ayahuasca-boom-in-the-u-s


2) Aromas: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2017/02/another-chemistry-lesson.html


3) Antacids: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2017/01/sour-stomach.html


4) Amphetamine: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2016/09/a-bargain-is-not-always-bargain.html


5) Adderall: http://nyti.ms/2dWJvDY


6) Antioxidants: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2014/04/nopal-antioxidant.html


7) NSAIDs: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2009/08/i-dont-like-drugs-but-drugs-like-me.html


8) Celebrex: https://n.pr/2fhF6Jq


9) Cycloastragenol: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2012/01/fountain-of-youth.html


10) Goldenseal: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2011/08/goldenseal-friend-or-foe.html


11) Henna: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2014/06/my-first-tattoo.html


12) Isoflavones (Part I): http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2011/02/to-soy-or-not-to-soy.html


13) Isoflavones (Part II): http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2011/02/to-soy-or-not-to-soy-part-ii.html


14)Lithium: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2015/03/lithium-orotate.html


15) Opioids: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2017/01/opioids.html


16) Retinoate: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2012/02/advanced-maternal-age.html


17) Serotonin: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2010/10/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors.html


18) Sumatriptan: http://bitchonabike.blogspot.com/2013/09/impatient-scientist.html